Matt Orsie's great shot of freshly minted Peck's and Tawny-edged Skippers [2015 May 26, Harper's Ferry WV]

Matt Orsie’s great shot of freshly minted Peck’s and Tawny-edged Skippers [2015 May 26, Harper’s Ferry WV]

The relative butterfly drought came to an end locally over the weekend, with the combination of rainfall early in the week and three gorgeous days of weekend butterfly watching created a tsunami of FOYs for the season over Memorial Day, including Baltimore Checkerspot, Peck’s Skipper, Hackberry Emperor, Great Spangled Fritillary, Northern Pearly-eye, Tawny-edged Skipper, and Common Checkered-skipper.

Last gasps of a few spring species made their (probably final) appearances this week as well, so we bid goodbye to the last of the elfins, “spring” Summer Azure, Spring Azure, West Virginia White and Mourning Cloak (although the summer brood will emerge soon and promptly aestivate until the cooler weather of autumn).

Little Bennett in Montgomery Co MD was the place to be for the first Baltimore Checkerspot of the year along the Western Piedmont Trail. Summer forms of Comma and Question Mark are flying, Viceroy was observed this weekend, and Red-spotted Purple is making a good showing for its first brood. Monarchs should have a good flight, given the dozens of late-stage cats that were observed in an extensive milkweed field in Worcester Co MD. First-brood Pearl Crescents are already winding down, but the first Silvery Checkerspots showed up over the weekend.  So too did the season’s first Great Spangled Fritillaries, in southern PG county.  The first report of Hackberry Emperor came in from near Charles Town, WV.

Some skippers are wrapping up, notably Juvenal’s and first generation Horace’s, as well as Dreamy and Sleepy Duskywings. But Wild Indigo Duskywing is flying, although not in large numbers this season.  Cloudywings continued to dominate the skipper sightings board, with both Northern and Southern Cloudywings reported across the region. So far no Confused Cloudywings in our area. Hoary Edge was reported from Green Ridge State Forest, as were Common Roadside-skippers. Females of both Hobomok and Zabulon Skipper, which emerge a week or so after the males, were both out over the weekend, including the dark female “pocahantas” form of Hobomok. A surprising colony of Pepper and Salt Skippers, already pretty worn, popped up in Frederick Co on Catoctin Mountain.  Dusted Skipper made surprising appearances in both Worcester and Prince George’s Co.

Other grass skippers had a great week, too, with observations of Peck’s, Dun, Tawny-edged, Least, Common Checkered-skipper and Sachem.

Satyrs are on the wing, with a large emergence this week of Little Wood Satyr, good numbers of Northern Pearly-eye, and continuing Carolina Satyr (and a note to all field observers to look critically at the Little Wood Satyrs, as Carolina Satyr in the past few years has made an aggressive push into Maryland).  Common Ringlet is flying in WV and should be looked for in western Maryland, as its range continues to expand.

On the Swallowtail front, no new sightings of Giant Swallowtail this weekend. Palamedes Swallowtail is flying in the cypress swamp areas of Worcester Co MD. Summer-brood Zebra Swallowtails are already out, flying alongside fading, tattered, first-generation, short-tailed specimens.

Late azures include the newly-emerging Appalachian Azure and Northern Azure, which is still flying in Garrett Co. Summer Azure is coming out for its second brood.

Predictions: This next week should see the emergence of a host of hairstreaks, including Great Purple, Banded, Striped, and Coral Hairstreaks in addition to true hairstreak rarities like Oak Hairstreak.  Some of the coastal skippers – Rare and Salt-marsh – could show up in the marshes. The great floppy Common Wood-nymph should be seen bobbing up and down in tall meadows. The remaining two of the “three witches” should be on the prowl with fellow witch, Dun Skipper: Northern Broken-dash and Little Glassywing. Crossline Skipper and Southern Broken-dash should be joining them.

There will be a Butterfly/Ode Walk this Saturday 5/30 at the Heinz NWR at Tinicum located near the Philadelphia Airport. The walk will meet at 9AM at the Rt 420 Entrance to the Refuge. This event is free and open to the public. For more information on this and other Tinicum events go to: http://www.fws.gov/refuge/John_Heinz/visit/upcomingevents.html

You’ll miss me in the field the next two weekends as I head off in search of Wisconsin and Minnesota butterflies, including Karner Blue, but please remember to share your sightings with us using the comment function on LepLog.wordpress.com or join us for discussion on Google Groups at MDLepsOdes.

Fresh American Lady at Soldiers Delight [2015 May 13, photo by REB]

Fresh American Lady at Soldiers Delight [2015 May 13, photo by REB]

For the first time in what seems like months we have a superb weekend shaping up weather-wise for the Memorial Day holiday. The rains today coupled with warm weather should bring a host of new emergences, including additional hairstreaks, satyrs, and others.

Top spots this week included Pepper and Salt Skipper in Maryland, Indian Skipper, Least Skipper, Viceroy, and Carolina Satyr.

While the early azures are winding down or gone already, some of the later azures are just now making an appearance, including Appalachian Azure. At high elevations to the west and south, Northern Azure and Cherry-gall Azure should be flying this week or next. Holly Azure is flying in New Jersey but I have no reports more locally. For the rest of us, it’s about time to resign ourselves to the fact that the only azures we’ll be seeing the rest of the season will either be summer-form Summer Azure or misidentified Eastern Tailed-blues!

Dogbane is budding, so hairstreak season should commence between now and the end of the month: Striped and Banded Hairstreaks among them, and Great Purple Hairstreak on Delmarva. Bronze Copper could be flying anywhere you’d look for Great Purple Hairstreak; American Copper has been out for about two weeks already.

Dusted Skipper seems to be having an exceptional year, with double-digit sightings at Soldiers Delight to complement the Cobweb Skipper already flying there. They’ll both continue through the weekend. A completely unexpected find this week was Pepper and Salt Skipper in Frederick Co on Catoctin Mountain, historically a location for this species but absent (or unreported) from there for almost 50 years [see more at https://leplog.wordpress.com/2015/05/20/pepper-salt-surprise/%5D. Indian Skipper and Hobomok Skippers (males only) were flying there as well.  Least Skippers are beginning to fly but not in numbers yet.

A few more Black Swallowtails were reported this week, but this species still is not experiencing good numbers this spring. Our first local Giant Swallowtail sighting showed up on the Maryland Biodiversity Project website from Allegany Co MD. Palamedes Swallowtail is flying on the Eastern Shore of VA.

Harvesters were out and about at a number of locations this week, including Rock Creek Park in the District. Little Wood Satyr and Carolina Satyr are both in flight.

Pearl Crescents are already looking a little tattered from their first brood, but there are overlapping broods so you will be able to see them in all conditions for the rest of the summer. Viceroy is out, and Red-spotted Purples increasingly reported. Northern Pearly-eye has emerged. Fresh American Ladies are on the wing, and many patches of pussytoes this week have webs of their caterpillars promising a substantial summer flight. Fresh Red Admirals are also out, although in very modest numbers still.

Predictions this weekend and next week are for American Snout, Great Purple Hairstreak on Delmarva, Appalachian Brown in wet woods and swamps across the area, Silvery Checkerspot most anywhere in the region, and Hoary Edge in the western MD counties.

Enjoy the long weekend, and if you spot them, please remember to share your sightings with us using the comment function on LepLog.wordpress.com or join us for discussion on Google Groups at MDLepsOdes.

The cool, sunny weather today (coupled with a forecast for a soaking tomorrow) got me up and out of the office early today for a trip up the road to Gambrill State Park near Frederick MD.  This is my go-to location every year for Appalachian Azure, and as Kathy Barylski has been noting in her forays in the area, it’s been a slow spring on Catoctin Mountain.

So I was very happy to see at least two Appalachian Azures bopping hopefully — but one imagines frustratedly — over the lush stands of black cohosh the caterpillar feeds on.  The cohosh is late too; the flower stalks are just now beginning to shoot up, and it will be a few days still before the azures find the emerging flower buds on which they prefer to lay their eggs.  They were far too skittish to allow a photo, however, especially with the new camera I’m just getting used to.

Walking back to the car, I stopped briefly to watch a dogfight between a couple of very small, dark skippers that I couldn’t immediately place.  Very few of the expected grass skippers are out yet; certainly none this dark.  They weren’t duskywings.  And then it clicked:  Pepper and Salt Skippers.

A surprising Pepper and Salt Skipper in Frederick Co MD, basking on a black cohosh leaf.  Note the strongly checkered fringes on the wings [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

A surprising Pepper and Salt Skipper in Frederick Co MD, basking on a black cohosh leaf. Note the strongly checkered fringes on the wings [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

Pepper and Salt Skippers are rank S2 in Maryland, in need of conservation.  And I’ve only ever seen them in the three far western counties, in early spring.  Seeing them in Frederick County was a complete surprise!

Also flying in Gambrill SP were Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (nothing that approached Appalachian Tiger was flying yet), Red-spotted Purple, a single Sachem, and Horace’s/Juvenal’s Duskywings (the two who showed their undersides were Juvenal’s).

Poor but discernible ventral shot of Pepper and Salt Skipper in Gambrill SP [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

Poor but discernible ventral shot of Pepper and Salt Skipper in Gambrill SP [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

I continued out of the park and north on the mountain into the Frederick Municipal Watershed Forest, to a famous spot for local butterfly watchers called the Sand Flats ponds.  There’s a short walk through weedy meadows and second-growth woods to two ponds that are mostly in open sun; this is a great place for odes in the summer and — this time of year — for both Hobomok and Indian Skippers.  Both usually make their appearances with the blooming of blackberries along the margins of the ponds, and sure enough the blackberries were just coming into bloom and a handful of Hobomok males were working them.

Indian Skipper at the Salt Flats in Frederick Municipal Watershed Forest [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

Indian Skipper at the Sand Flats in Frederick Municipal Watershed Forest [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

And at the end of the blackberry patch a single Indian Skipper, incredibly fresh, posed conveniently on the dirt path.

Always great to see the skipper diversity beginning to build for the summer, but especially so with these highly sought-after species!

Hobomok Skippers were actively working the blackberry bushes along the ponds at the Sand Flats.  [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

Hobomok Skippers were actively working the blackberry bushes along the ponds at the Sand Flats. [2015 May 20, photo by REB]

Very gravid Cobweb Skipper at Soldiers Delight NEA [2015 May 12, courtesy Barry Marts]

Very gravid Cobweb Skipper at Soldiers Delight NEA [2015 May 12, courtesy Barry Marts]

From unseasonably hot to unseasonably cold, the past week has been one of extremes. Highlights locally included Sachem, Zabulon Skipper, and American Copper.

Both Cobweb Skipper and Dusted Skipper have been seen this week at Soldiers Delight near Baltimore, and at other locations — with bluestem — scattered around the mid-Atlantic. Wild Indigo Duskywing numbers have been rising, while Horace’s and Juvenal’s Duskywing populations are trailing off. Zabulon Skipper and its western/northern congener Hobomok Skipper both made appearances this week. Pepper and Salt Skipper is flying in the western mountains and in PA. A single Sachem showed up on reports this week locally.

Sulphur and white numbers are still pretty anemic, although I was surprised to see a very strong showing of Clouded Sulphurs in Garrett Co. on my last trip. Last year was also a “down” sulphur/white year.  A few straggler Falcate Orangetips put in an appearance there too, probably their last for the Forecast this year.

Eastern Tailed-blue is flying in large numbers, and American Copper reports started coming in. Red-banded Hairstreak sightings are up. White M is still being seen but mostly as tattered individuals. Hessel’s Hairstreak and Hoary Elfin are still flying in NJ, as is Frosted Elfin on the Eastern Shore of MD.

Both Ladies are flying now, mostly fresh American Ladies. Pearl Crescents are out with a vengeance. Monarchs continue drifting through. American Snout is having an irruptive cycle in some parts of the Carolinas, it appears, so migrants can be expected on the next southerly winds.  Red Admirals have been reported consistently but mostly as singletons, not migrating hordes as we see in some years. Red–spotted Purple is emerging but appears to be slow. Meadow Fritillaries are out and seem to be having a good first flight.

Harvester continues to be seen around the region but not yet in MD. But it should be looked for this weekend, as it appears to be having a good flight to our south (VA, Carolinas) and north (PA, New England).

No new swallowtails to add to the species already noted in previous Forecasts, but observers should watch for Giant Swallowtail and Palamedes Swallowtail in their limited ranges in the upper mid-Atlantic.  Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail numbers are peaking this week.  Very few Black Swallowtails have been reported so far this year.

Things to look for this weekend and next week, despite the unsettled weather forecast, include Little Wood and Carolina Satyrs, Hoary Edge in the western MD, and Viceroy. [Editor’s note:  And just as I was about to hit “send,” Richard Orr reported Little Wood Satyr in Allegany County at the mouth of Sideling Hill Creek.  Prescience is a gift!]

If you spot them, please remember to share your sightings with us using the comment function on LepLog.wordpress.com or join us for discussion on Google Groups at MDLepsOdes.

Common Roadside-skipper along Sideling Hill Creek [2015 May 8, photo by REB]

A very frosty Common Roadside-skipper along Sideling Hill Creek [2015 May 8, photo by REB]

I spent a good part of last weekend in western MD, Friday in Green Ridge State Forest and environs, with an overnight in Frostburg, and Sunday exploring Potomac State Forest in Garrett Co.  Unlike the DC area, the mountains were clear and warm, perfect for butterfly and botany observation.

I arrived late morning Friday at Swain Hollow in Allegany Co., to the extension of Harris Norris Rd where it crosses Stottlemeyer and runs for a few hundred yards of dirt road down to Sideling Hill Creek.  This is always a good area for mud puddlers, and last weekend was no exception.  In addition to the Eastern Tailed-blues and various duskywings (Sleepy, Dreamy, Horace’s/Juvenal’s, and Wild Indigo were all flying), I had my FOY Common Roadside-skipper, which would live up to its name over the course of the day in Green Ridge.  Zebra and Spicebush Swallowtails were both puddling as well, but they were dwarfed by the huge, lemon-yellow Appalachian Tigers at the mud bar as well.

Northern Cloudywing, common in Green Ridge State Forest this weekend [2015 May 8, photo by REB]

Northern Cloudywing, common in Green Ridge State Forest this weekend [2015 May 8, photo by REB]

After checking out the mud flats by the creek for tiger beetles (and finding the state-endangered Appalachian Tiger Beetle in addition to 12-spotted and 6-spotted Tiger Beetles), I had high hopes for some interesting butterflies along Hoop Pole Road, but surprisingly it was pretty empty save for fly-by swallowtails.  I continued along Oldtown-Orleans to one of my favorite spots n GRSF, the powerline that parallels Mertens Ave.  Cobweb Skippers had been reported here earlier, but instead of walking uphill from the most convenient pullout on Mertens Ave. (in the direction most likely to produce them), I explored the section downhill to Carroll Road.  The first butterfly I saw was a fat Northern Cloudywing nectaring on a wild azalea as soon as I cleared the tree line.  And cloudywings were virtually everywhere; I must have seen at least two dozen, many already in a state of considerable wear.  More Common Roadside-skippers vied for my attention, although little else of note showed up before I made my way back to the car and into Frostburg for dinner and the night.

A very obliging Eastern Milksnake I spirited off the roadway in Swanton

A very obliging Eastern Milksnake I spirited off the roadway in Swanton

I went out early the next morning hoping to see Golden-winged Warbler en route to the Potomac State Forest lands, but missed it by concentrating on the “old” warbler site (now grown up past its prime for Golden-wingeds, which really like early successional forests/overgrown fields) and ignoring the new habitat across Old Legislative Road that is now supporting the local population.  So it was on to Harlow MD and environs.  En route I made friends with a very engaging Eastern Milksnake near Swanton.

Where Potomac State Forest is bounded by the Potomac River, it’s a very rich botanical area, and one of the more common plants — in addition to red, painted and white trilliums — is toothwort, in this case Broad-leaved Toothwort, Cardamine diphylla.  This is the host plant for West Virginia White, and over the course of the next hour or so of driving some of the back roads I saw well over a dozen of these pale ghosts floating through the forest.  This is the first time since I was a graduate student that I’ve seen West Virginia White in MD, and it was a source of great satisfaction. And I could see West Virginia across the Potomac from where the bulk of these butterflies were, so they were living up to their namesake!

Cardamine diphylla, Broad-leave Toothwort, larval host for West Virginia White in Potomac State Forest.

Cardamine diphylla, Broad-leaved Toothwort, larval host for West Virginia White in Potomac State Forest.

Otherwise, little else was flying there, so I packed up and drove back toward I-68 by way of Big Run State Park where I diligently but fruitlessly checked out the unoccupied camp sites for Gray Comma.  I also stopped in briefly at Cunningham Swamp WMA at day’s end, where in a fresh, stiff, cool breeze I saw my last butterfly of the trip, my FOY Meadow Fritillary.

After a stop for a quick dinner (Chicken BBQ Wedgie at Brenneman’s Store in Accident MD), I made it to the Citgo on I-68 at Swain Hollow Road about an hour after dark to check out the moth scene around the lights there.  Not much going on this early in the season beyond a Luna Moth and a fresh Promethea silk moth, which had I photographed it would have been an Allegany Co record for the Maryland Biodiversity Project!  Who knew ….

West Virginia White, one of more than a dozen I saw along the back roads in Potomac State Forest [2015 May 9, photo by REB]

West Virginia White, one of more than a dozen I saw along the back roads in Potomac State Forest [2015 May 9, photo by REB]

Gray Hairstreak, Odenton MD, Anne Arundel Co [2015 May 2, photo by REB]

Gray Hairstreak, Odenton MD, Anne Arundel Co [2015 May 2, photo by REB]

Mother’s Day weekend is always a time for me to remember my mom and the dozens of yards of curtain material and muslin she sacrificed for all those butterfly nets of my youth she sewed. Birds, botany and butterflies were passions we shared, and I hope many of you are able to share these passions (or memories) with your mothers this weekend.

Spring suddenly seems to have telescoped into summer over the past few warm, muggy days, and folks who have been out in the field are reporting FOYs almost daily. At the same time, the previous cool temperatures allowed a couple of early spring univoltine species to hang on for a bit, notably Olympia Marble, Northern Azure and Falcate Orangetip, all seen in MD this week. West Virginia White and Gray Commas continued in Potomac State Forest (Garrett Co MD) this week.

While Dick Smith’s Soldiers Delight field trip and my foray to the Eastern Shore in search of Cobweb Skipper turned up nothing, Cobweb was reported flying early this week in Green Ridge State Forest, along with the usual complement of duskywings (Wild Indigo, Dreamy, Sleepy, Juvenal’s and Horace’s). All the spring swallowtails (except for Appalachian Tiger and Giant) are now out regionally, with Palamedes flying in the Great Dismal Swamp of VA and presumably in its local populations on the MD Eastern Shore.

No new entrants on the whites/sulphur ledger; generally low or modest numbers of Cabbage (Small) White and Orange and Clouded Sulphurs but no repeat sightings of Sleepy Orange. We’re all wondering whether Little Yellow will resurface in the mid-Atlantic this year after a complete hiatus last year.

Harvester has been observed in VA and NC already, so we should be watching for it locally as well.

All the expected hairstreaks are flying – White M, Gray, Red-banded, Juniper. Northern Oak Hairstreak is out in SC (a report from James Island, where it was observed nectaring on Ligustrum). Hessel’s Hairstreak should be flying in NJ, although I have not yet seen any reports from its strongholds in VA or NC.

My trip to the usual haunts for Frosted Elfin in Worcester Co (MD) last weekend came up naught, but I did see two adults in a new and unexpected location nearby, both very fresh. As lupine (the normal Eastern Shore larval host) is just beginning to bloom – and Frosted Elfin usually doesn’t emerge until bloom is well along – the suspicion in my mind is that these Frosteds were/are using an alternate host. Or have a bead on an early stand of lupine! Brown Elfin was also flying on the Eastern Shore in its normal habitat along Tom Tyler Nature Trail. Henry’s and Eastern Pine Elfin were picked up in double digits again last weekend at the Patuxent North Tract but mostly disappeared by midweek this week (although they could have been sitting out the heat in the shade of the surrounding forest rather than displaying nicely as they have been on the sandy roads).

New butterflies I expect this weekend if the weather holds are American Copper, Common Checkered-skipper, and Red-spotted Purple, the latter of which began showing up in NC and VA reports this week.  Add to the list of possible FOYs locally this week our wood-satyrs, Little Wood Satyr and Carolina Satyr.  In the mountains we should begin seeing Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail this week.

Cliff Hence will be leading a butterfly walk this Saturday 5/9 at the John Heinz NWR at Tinicum located near the Philadelphia Airport as part of their International Migatory Bird Day celebration. The walk will leave from the Visitors Center at 12 noon and is free and open to the public.  For more info on this and other event at the refuge go to: http://www.fws.gov/refuge/John_Heinz/visit/upcomingevents.html

Look for me in the field in Allegany and Garrett counties this weekend, and please remember to report them using the comment function on LepLog.wordpress.com or join us on Google Groups at MDLepsOdes.

West Virginia White puddling along Lake Logan Rd in Haywood Co NC [2015 April 25, photo by REB]

West Virginia White puddling along Lake Logan Rd in Haywood Co NC [2015 April 25, photo by REB]

The lep picture has not changed appreciably since last weekend; few new FOYs reported despite the generally good weather (unexpectedly!) last Sunday and early this week.Locally, there’s an uptick in swallowtail sightings for both Zebra and Eastern Tiger.  Eastern Tiger Swallowtail is flying in only modest numbers again this year, as it did in 2014.  Pipevine and Spicebush have been rather harder to find, although both were flying well in south central Virginia last weekend.  Black Swallowtail finally made appearances this weeked in the DC area and I expect many more sightings will come this weekend.Spring Azure is out to complement the earlier-emerging spring form of Summer Azure; Appalachian Azure should be flying in moist forest areas where its larval host, black cohosh, hasn’t been mowed down by deer. Dusky Azure, where it is found, will likely be nectaring on wild geranium adjacent to its larval host plant, goatsbeard.Eastern Tailed-blue and Pearl Crescent both emerged this past week and should build into early May.

Wild Indigo Duskywing is now out, marking the third duskywing around now without a cell spot on the wing (with Sleepy and Dreamy and possibly Columbine, although the latter’s distribution in the mid-Atlantic is unclear). Horace’s and Juvenal’s are still out; look for the spot on the leading edge of the ventral HW to ID Juvenal’s. Silver-spotted Skipper is emerging too, and Common Roadside-skipper is flying in VA. Appalachian Grizzled Skipper should still be out in its very limited habitat, having been reported in numbers in Alleghany Co VA a week ago.

All three common(-ish) elfins are flying now — Pine, Henry’s, and Brown — and Eastern Pine is having a remarkably strong flight this spring. Hoary Elfin is likely about in NJ (where its host is bearberry); it should also be looked for in western mountain bogs where the larvae are believed to utilize trailing arbutus. I plan a foray to the Eastern Shore of MD this weekend to look for Frosted Elfin, which should be laying eggs on lupine buds and emerging flowers.  Or quite possibly on baptisia, a presumed alternate host.

American Ladies and a single Painted Lady were reported, while Mourning Cloak and anglewings are beginning to decline in numbers. It’s likely that Gray Comma is flying in the western mountains but no one has weighed in with a sighting yet.

In the hairstreak category, look this weekend for Gray, White M and Red-banded — all have been reported locally.  Juniper Hairstreak is also having a good year; we saw more than a dozen in the red-cedars the Travilah Serpentine Barrens in western Montgomery Co (Potomac) MD this week.

Whites and sulphurs are flying but in generally low numbers. Falcate Orangetip is about finished for the year after a rather anemic spring flight; presumably Olympia Marble is also mostly done for the season. Cabbage (Small) White, Orange Sulphur, and Clouded Sulphur were all reported recently but not in large numbers. Last week’s Sleepy Orange remains the only local sighting so far;  West Virginia White was flying well in the Great Smokies (and should be in the local mountain forests too) as I drove through there last weekend on my return from a memorable trip that included Giant Yucca-skipper, Gemmed Satyr, and Goatweed Leafwing in extreme eastern TN.

Dick Smith is leading a butterfly hike in Soldiers Delight near Baltimore on Sunday: targets there are Cobweb and Dusted Skippers, although we suspect it’s early this season for Dusted. Details at https://leplog.wordpress.com/2015-season-mid-atlantic-count-and-field-trip-calendar/

Weather Underground promises a glorious weekend, so please remember to post or send your sightings for the next Weekend Forecast. In the meantime, visit us at https://leplog.wordpress.com/ and on Google Groups at MDLepsOdes.

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