Job Opportunity: Grassland Butterfly Research Technician (North Dakota)

Field technician to assist in data collection on a grassland butterfly research project (40hrs/week). The study objectives include developing abundance and occupancy estimates for grassland dependent butterflies in the Northern Great Plains. Data collection will include butterfly surveying and identification, plant composition, and plant structure. The field season will range from the end of May to beginning of August depending on field conditions (~5/29-8/15). Research sites are located throughout North Dakota and a small portion of South Dakota. Housing will be provided for the duration of the field season.

For the full announcement, see http://wfscjobs.tamu.edu/jobs/grassland-butterfly-research-technician-north-dakota-2/

 

 

 

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Cercyonis pegala agawamensis: Salt Marsh Wood Nymph

In 2014, Matthew Arey and Alex Grkovich described a new subspecies of Wood Nymph that occurs in the salt marshes in New England (type locality in Essex Co., MA).  The rest of the eastern coastline hasn’t been surveyed for this critter yet, to my knowledge, so it’s possible that diligent observers in Delmarva could add this taxon to the region’s fauna.

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The attached paper describes some morphological differences from better known taxa, but the big distinctions between the newly described Salt Marsh Wood Nymph and other Common Wood Nymph variants in New England are some very odd behavioral characteristics.  We all know Common Wood Nymph from inland grasslands by its “bobbing” flight, as if on a yo-yo string that jerks it up and down in tall grass.  The new subspecies, agawamensis, is characterized as having a direct, level flight instead; according to the authors, this butterfly is semi-communal, and spooking one of the butterflies sets the whole cluster/group in motion (a trait they seem to share with some tropical satyrids).  Also unique to Salt Marsh Wood Nymph is the fact that it is an avid nectar feeder — it’s a rare sight indeed to find Common Wood Nymph on flowers, but apparently Salt Marsh regularly visits flowers.  The timing of the brood is also somewhat offset from the flights of congeners.

Read the full paper here for more info: Arey & Grkovich 2014. Cercyonis pegala agawamensis (Satyridae): A new butterfly subspecies from the coastal salt marshes of the northeastern United States of America

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Clemson scientists unraveling astonishing complexities of the butterfly proboscis

Editor’s Note:  I missed this fascinating piece on butterfly proboscis research out of Clemson U earlier this year.  Here’s the university press piece:
proboscis_tiger_swallowtail

The proboscises of butterflies are able to curl up into a compact package. Image Credit: Peter Adler Lab / Clemson University

Jim Melvin, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences; Public Service and Agriculture, August 23, 2016

CLEMSON, South Carolina — A pair of Clemson University scientists has spent the past decade exploring the unique intricacies of a naturally engineered feeding tube that butterflies and other insects have been refining for 200 million years.

Although the insects have a rather large head start, the scientists are doing their best to catch up by successively unveiling an array of discoveries that are shaping the way biologists, materials scientists and engineers understand the mechanisms of one of nature’s most multifarious body parts. This ever-increasing fount of knowledge is expected to eventually lead to manufactured devices that could revolutionize medical procedures and other yet-to-be-conceived applications.

Since 2007, entomologist Peter Adler and engineer Kostya Kornev have blended their diverse skill sets to study the proboscises of butterflies, moths and other varieties of fluid-feeding insects that use these flexible mouthparts to acquire food from sources as diverse as nectar, soil, dung and carrion.

Biologists once believed that the proboscis (pronounced pro-BOSS-ciss) was a simple tube that drew up liquids like a straw. But Adler, Kornev and their students and associates, including Clemson research specialist Charles Beard, have worked incessantly to reveal that the proboscis is an astonishingly complex marvel of nature, as proficient as it is diverse. Recent advancements in their research have further quickened the pace of their explorations.

“We have been able to show that the proboscis is actually many times more sophisticated than a straw,” said Adler, a professor of entomology at Clemson University. “Instead, it is a self-cleaning microfluidic system made up of two C-shaped fibers that unite to form a food canal that is laden with pores, sensors, internal muscles and other tissues. And depending on the species, it is often covered with shingles, spines or bumps. The proboscis is able to acquire sticky fluids that potentially contain bacteria, yet remain squeaky clean and uninfected in the process. How is this accomplished? The surface of this tiny tube contains a mosaic of hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-repellant) properties that enable the insects to drink and self-clean almost simultaneously. This paradoxical juggling act is essential to their survival.”

The unconventional marriage of Adler’s expertise in entomology and biology and Kornev’s mastery of materials science and engineering has benefitted both parties and significantly enhanced the research. Adler has spent his career studying how living organisms adapt, behave and evolve in ways that engineers might not even consider. In complementary fashion, Kornev has the knowledge of materials science and physical principles and the know-how to operate highly sophisticated equipment not often employed by biologists.

“Every time we open a new door, we find five more doors behind it,” said Kornev, a professor of materials science and engineering at Clemson. “But our projects are driven by scientific curiosity and passion about both the engineering and biology. The proboscis is unique in the sense that it is fibrous and, at the same time, a sensor-driven delivery system for fluid intake. So looking at how these fibers are assembled is a big challenge that can help engineers design a variety of fluidic devices — medical and otherwise — that are tiny, flexible and durable. It is exciting to imagine what the future might hold, but for now we are doing our best just to learn as much as we can about the proboscis.”

The proboscis is attached to the insect’s head, where a pump helps power the slew of sponge-like mechanisms that draw up fluids. Many proboscises are less than an inch long, but some reach 14 inches, dwarfing the length of the insect’s entire body. However, all insect proboscises are miniature in terms of diameter — about 15 times thicker than a human hair — which makes them difficult to study without the use of sophisticated equipment, such as electron microscopes and micro-CT scanners.

But Adler and Kornev routinely use this high-tech equipment — both at Clemson and at a pair of national laboratories — to examine proboscises in excruciatingly intimate detail. Because of this, their understanding of the proboscis places them at the top of the scientific community.

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This is the tip of vampire moth proboscis that was taken with a confocal microscope. Image Credit: Courtesy of Matthew S. Lehnert Lab

“We want to get to the heart and soul of how proboscises work, and we’ve recently come to understand a lot of the processes that occur at the micro- and nano-levels,” said Adler, who first became fascinated with the workings and diversity of proboscises when he was a graduate student at Penn State in the 1970s. “I would characterize our advances as quite significant because they provide new models for fluid uptake not just in butterflies and moths but in any insect that has sucking mouth parts, including insect pests that damage crops. There are more than one million known species of insects in the world and potentially as many as 10 million species overall, most of which have yet to be discovered. About 50 percent of all these species suck fluids, so the diversity is almost overwhelming.”

“But this is how science works,” added Kornev, who supervises materials science and engineering Ph.D students Luke Sande and Chengqi Zhang. “Life is too short to cover everything. So what we do instead is take on the most challenging paradoxes that drive the development of the bigger picture.”

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Matthew S. Lehnert, a research scientist at Kent State University, did post-doctoral work at Clemson University. Among the butterfly species he is studying is the Atala butterfly shown here. Image Credit: Courtesy of Matthew S. Lehnert Lab

During their 10-year collaboration, the entomologist and the engineer have been assisted by several dozen scientists, research assistants, postdocs, graduate students and college and high school students at Adler’s lab at the Cherry Farm Insectaries and at Kornev’s lab at Sirrine Hall. Adler described them as “ambassadors not just for Clemson University, but for science and nature. Once they’ve spent time at Clemson, whether it’s for a single summer or several years, all these people then go out in the world and influence others in very positive and beneficial ways.”

One such ambassador is Matthew S. Lehnert, who joined Adler and Kornev’s team in 2010 as a postdoctoral scholar after receiving his Ph.D at the University of Florida. Lehnert is now a research scientist and assistant professor at Kent State University at Stark in North Canton, Ohio, and he plans to devote most of his career to an ongoing study of the proboscis. Lehnert is a co-investigator — along with Adler and Kornev — of a three-year, $626,800 National Science Foundation grant that has just begun its final year. This grant is one of several that has fueled the projects since 2007. More grants are certain to come that will continue to give wings to the research.

“I think I was a bit naïve when I started working at Clemson, thinking that the proboscis is a pretty simple thing. Now I know that it is a very complex device loaded with microstructures that all play different roles in the feeding process,” said Lehnert, adding that his students at Kent State seem as passionate about the research as he is.

“Because of this cool collaboration between biologists and engineers, we know so much more than we did just two years ago. It’s been exciting to constantly find new and unexpected things. It really is incredible what these proboscises are capable of doing, and the more we can learn about them, the more we will benefit down the road. The possibilities seem limitless.”

[Related YouTube video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYIFjQmABa0]

END

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number IOS 1354956. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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PA Butterfly Atlas 2017

David Wright has just released the 2017 Butterfly Atlas for Pennsylvania (# 16, if you’re keeping count), which includes a listing of new county records for the 2016 season.  Here’s the PDF in the LepLog library.

atlas_pa_bflies-16th-ed-2017

atlas_pa_bflies-16th-ed-2017

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What is the Birthplace for Most North American Monarch Butterflies?

Hint:  It isn’t, and appears never to have been, the Midwestern breadbasket.  Throwing a real wrench in the prevailing notion that “saving” the Monarch in the US prairie belt is somehow tied to the species’ — or the migration’s — survival.  The proportions of Monarchs from various parts of North America that make it to Mexico overwinter hasn’t changed much.

See below for the full story and links to the paper and university release.

monarchbutterfly-ig1-final-450x285

University of Guelph researchers have pinpointed the North American birthplaces of migratory monarch butterflies that overwinter in Mexico, vital information that will help conserve the dwindling species.

The researchers analyzed “chemical fingerprints” in the wings of butterflies collected as far back as the mid-1970s to learn where monarchs migrate within North America each autumn.

The largest percentage of monarchs migrated to Mexico from the American Midwest, but the biologists were surprised to find that the insects’ origins were spread fairly evenly throughout Canada and the United States.

“We expected the vast majority of monarch butterflies to be found in the Midwestern states,” said Tyler Flockhart, lead author and Liber Ero Postdoctoral Fellow at U of G.

“However, just 38 per cent come from that part of the U.S.A. If we just focus conservation activities on this area, this research shows we will be missing a large number of butterflies born elsewhere in North America.”

This is the first detailed look at where overwintering monarch butterflies are born over multiple years, he said.

Monarch numbers have dropped significantly in recent years, likely due partly to the eradication of milkweed, which began in the mid-1990s. Monarchs feed on milkweed and lay their eggs on the plants.

Analyzing more than 1,000 samples, the research team looked at chemical isotope signatures showing where the butterflies were born in the previous summer and fall.

They found that 12 per cent of the insects were born in the northwestern U.S. and Canadian Prairies, 17 per cent in the north-central States and Ontario, 15 per cent in the northeastern U.S. and the Maritimes, 11 per cent in the south-central U.S. and eight per cent in the southeastern States.

“We didn’t see the decline in the proportion of monarchs we expected in the breadbasket of the U.S. — the Midwestern states — due to the loss of milkweed, but that could be because monarch numbers dropped across North America,” said Flockhart.

Co-author and integrative biology professor Ryan Norris said the study shows monarch conservation efforts must begin immediately throughout North America. He called for better collection and analysis of butterflies in their Mexican overwintering grounds to monitor the effects of conservation efforts.

“We’re facing a growing crisis of species extinction, not just with monarchs,” said Norris, co-author of the new paper. “While the Midwest U.S.A. is top-priority, effective conservation of monarchs will require initiatives to restore and conserve habitats across the species range, which means there must be coordinated international initiatives.”

The Guelph researchers worked with collaborators at Western University in London, Ont., the University of Georgia, Sweet Briar College in Virginia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Environment Canada and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Most of the older monarch samples were collected by Lincoln Brower of Sweet Briar College, who has studied the butterflies for more than 50 years.

The study was published this month in Global Change Biology.


Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Guelph. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Lincoln P. Brower, M. Isabel Ramirez, Keith A. Hobson, Leonard I. Wassenaar, Sonia Altizer, D. Ryan Norris. Regional climate on the breeding grounds predicts variation in the natal origin of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico over 38 years. Global Change Biology, 2017; DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13589
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Planning for 2017

Once again, for 2017 I’ll be attempting to compile here a mid-Atlantic-wide calendar of counts, field trips, walks, and other lep-related field activities for the 2016 flight season.  Thanks a million to many of you for your past help, both in letting me know of counts or field trips you are planning or ones you know about.  Events in NJ, WV, PA, DE, MD, VA & NC are all welcome.

Please send me event info in roughly the format used below if you would.  You can use the comment form below or just email me at MDLepsOdes@gmail.com.

To refresh your memory or spur your planning, here’s last year’s (2016) list:

______________________________________________________________________

APR 17  [LepTrek] MD: Allegany Co.  Foray to Green Ridge State Forest in search of Olympia Marble and other spring butterflies.  Silvery Blue, azures, elfins, Dreamy and Sleepy Duskywings, and others are possible on this field trip.  The early season brought these species out already on March 30, but weather has not been cooperating so we’re moving the date again to Sunday.  Limited to 10.  To register or receive updates:  CONTACT: Trip organizer Rick Borchelt, rborchelt |AT| gmail DOT com

APR 23 [ANS Field Trip] MD:  Boyds.  Audubon Naturalist Society organizes a field trip, Spring Butterflies of Hoyle’s Mill Conservation Park. Hoyle’s Mill Conservation Park in upper Montgomery County preserves the largest diabase bedrock habitat in Maryland, making it a rich area of both common and uncommon plants. These plants are caterpillar hosts and nectar resources for spring butterflies, such as the pipevine swallowtail and its more common cousins: falcate orangetip; olive hairstreak; Eastern comma; and several species of duskywing skippers. We’ll look for these species and their associated plant communities along a mostly flat dirt/gravel road in the Park on a walk of 2-3 miles.  10 am-3:30 pm, trip fee required (register at http://www.audubonnaturalist.org/index.php/nature-programs/adults).  Leaders Stephanie Mason and Dick Smith.  CONTACT:  Stephanie.Mason@anshome.org

[WEATHER CANCELLATION] MAY 6-7-8 [LepTrek] MD:  Garrett Co.  An expedition to look for West Virginia White, Cherry Gall Azure, Dusky Azure, Gray Comma, and other western MD specialties.  CONTACT: Trip organizer Rick Borchelt, rborchelt |AT| gmail DOT com

MAY 8 [ Field Trip, South Jersey Butterfly Project] NJ: Cape May Co, Lizard Tail Swamp. Will Kerling will be leading our group’s first field trip of 2016 — to one of his favorite stomping grounds:  Lizard Tail Swamp Preserve in Cape May County.  This will be a joint trip with our friends, the NABA North Jersey Butterfly Club. Frosted elfin is one target species, but if the weather cooperates, we should see a good number of other early May species.  Will has recorded 72 species for Lizard Tail, more than he has found for any other of the many Cape May County locales he has explored over the years.  Our start time is 10 am, Sunday, May 8.  Details about specific meeting spot and parking will be announced here, once they are worked out.Participation is free, of course.  Join us if you can!

MAY 14 [Butterfly Walk]    PA:  Delaware Co, Tinicum.  There will be a Butterfly Walk this Saturday as part of the John Heinz NWR at Tinicum’s International Migratory Bird Day Program. The walk will meet meet at 11 AM at the Visitors Center . This event is free and open to the public. For more information about this and other events during the IMBD celebration go to: http://www.fws.gov/refuge/John_Heinz/visit/upcomingevents.html CONTACT:  Cliff Hence, cwhenceiii@aol.com

MAY 15 [Butterfly Walk] MD:  Soldiers Delight, Owings Mills.  Serpentine Barrens Spring Butterflies. Dick Smith will present a brief slide show (handicap accessible) on barrens butterflies and then lead the group for about 2 miles along trails (not handicap accessible) through the globally rare serpentine barrens ecosystem at Soldiers Delight. We will search for locally-occurring and serpentine endemic mid-spring butterflies such as the small and attractively bark-scalloped Eastern Pine Elfin and the bluestem grass dependent Cobweb and Dusted Skippers. Additionally, we will examine and identify several of the native grasses and wildflowers seldom seen in abundance elsewhere around Maryland. Close-focus binoculars are recommended, but butterfly net-and-release (with in-jar identification) can be conducted by the leader on request. Educational and fun for kids and adults! Hike will be cancelled if raining or overcast, but slideshow will be presented regardless of weather status. For all ages; children under 12 should be accompanied by an adult. Meet at the Visitor’s Center. Registration required! (Soldiers Delight now limits hike attendance to 12 people to protect the fragile ecosystem along narrow trails.)  Cost: Free! Donations to Soldiers Delight NEA welcome. CONTACT:  Dick Smith at RichardSmith9070@verizon.net or call (410) 997-7439.

JUN 18 [NABA Count] VA: Sky Meadows State Park/Thompson WMA.  Contact:  Scott Baron, baron.scott@gmail.com

JUN 25 [NABA Count] MD:  Western Montgomery Co.  CONTACT:  Stephanie.Mason@anshome.org

JUN 25 [NABA Count] VA:  Maidens.  We usually leave from our house around 9 a.m.  CONTACT:  cphenly@comcast.net.

JUN 26 [NABA Count] MD: Carroll & Frederick Counties.  ACAS count in western Carroll and eastern Frederick counties.  Meet at 9:00 a.m. at the entrance to the Audrey Carroll Audubon Sanctuary off Old Annapolis Road near Mt. Airy.  The count will cover this sanctuary and the Fred Archibald Sanctuary in New Market. The count will last until mid to late afternoon. Rain date July 2. CONTACT:  David Smith, lacsmith@comcast.net or 443-995-4108.

JUL 1 [NABA Count] VA:  Island Ford, Rockingham Co.  CONTACT:  Mike Smith, foresmiths@comcast.net; 540.742.3451 cell.

JUL 8 [NABA Count] VA:  Shenandoah National Park.  CONTACT:  Mike Smith, foresmiths@comcast.net; 540.742.3451 cell.

JUL 9 [NABA Count] VA: Bath County 23rd annual Butterfly Count. Meet at 10:00 AM at Hidden Valley B&B to start the count, which will run until approximately 6 PM. Please consider staying there (rooms are limited, book now!). If you can’t stay afield that long, no worries… you can either leave your results at the B&B or e-mail them. Please note that there are NO public restrooms at Hidden Valley B&B (the B&B is for guests only) – this is only our meeting place. A public Forest Service toilet is available a short distance away across the Jackson River from the B&B. The weather in Bath County can be tricky, be prepared for very warm temps when the sun is out, and afternoon storms are common in July. Cool, misty early mornings are the rule in mid-summer. Oh, and did I mention Diana Fritillaries should be seen? CONTACT: Frank Boyle at ravenfrank@earthlink.net

JUL 9 [Field Trip, South Jersey Butterfly Project] NJ:  Burlington Co, Medford Leas. 1 Medford Leas Dr., Medford, NJ; Sat. July 9th 9:45am.  There are a variety of habitats here, and we will walk around the community garden, and then go to the surrounding fields. Bring close-focus binoculars, water, hat, sunscreen, bug spray, & lunch. There is a Wawa on Rte. 70 if coming from the west, where you could pick up lunch.I recommend wearing long pants due to the possibility of ticks. Meet at the tennis courts’ parking area next to the horticultural building. Once you turn into Medford Leas Drive — a right jughandle at traffic light — stay to your left and at the t-intersection, turn right, and then take the immediate left. Continue around until you see the horticultural building with greenhouse and just past it turn left into the parking area.  The tennis courts will be straight ahead. For detailed directions from Rt. 295 and Rt. 70 visit the Medford Leas website: http://www.medfordleas.org/contact-us/location-and-directions  Trip is cancelled if it rains. CONTACT:  Chris Herz 856-534-5597 cell.

JUL 9 [NABA Count] PA:  Lancaster Co., Holtwood.  CONTACT: Fred Habegger, suissefred@yahoo.com

JUL 16  [NABA Count] DC: US National Arboretum & Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens.  Meet at 9:30 a.m. in the parking lot of the Arboretum Visitor Center near the R Street entrance. As one enters from R Street, the lot is to the left. Based on the number of participants, we may carpool from there to other locations, including Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens. The count will last until mid to late afternoon (the Arboretum closes at 5 p.m.), depending on heat and butterfly activity. Rain date Jul 17.  CONTACT:  Tom Stock, at altomomatic |AT| Verizon |DOT| net.

JUL 30 [Field Trip, Mengel Natural History Society] PA: Berks Co: Blue Marsh Lake.  Saturday 10:00 am. Butterfly identification walk at Blue Marsh.  We will view at a distance and for a good look we will capture some butterflies and put them in viewing jars so you can get a close look before releasing them. Meet at the Blue Marsh Visitor’s Center off of Palisades Drive. Joint walk with Baird Ornithological Club. The public is welcome. Free.  CONTACT:  Karl Gardner, 610-987-3281 or Ken Lebo, 610-856-1413.

JUL 30 [NABA Count] PA:  Lancaster and Lebanon Cos., Furnace Hills Conservation Area, Pennsylvania Highlands.  CONTACT: Fred Habegger, suissefred@yahoo.com

AUG 7 [NABA Count] VA: Airlie.  Sunday, August 7th from 8 am until 4 pm.  The morning begins at 8 am with registration, coffee and donuts at the Environmental Studies on the Piedmont (ES), 6712 Blantyre Road, Warrenton, Virginia. Bring your lunch and we will happily store refrigerated items at the farmhouse. Teams will move to the field by 9 am and return to the farmhouse at 12:30 for lunch. Afternoon surveys will resume from 1 pm until 4 pm. Team leaders should return data sheets to the field station at 4 pm.
Volunteers (experienced and novice) are needed. Please sign up for a whole day, or half day, of exploring the fields within our count circle. Sturdy shoes, sunscreen, hats, binoculars and cameras are recommended. Older children, with supervision, are welcome.
Novice butterfly counters are encouraged to attend our Butterfly Bootcamp, Saturday, August 6th from 2 – 5 pm. We’ll make a foray into the fields at ES and learn how to spot and identify various butterfly species. CONTACT and RSVP: sgarvin@envstudies.org for either event, would be greatly appreciated. Please indicate if you are available morning or afternoon or both for the count day.

AUG 27 [Field Trip, Mengel Natural History Society] PA: Berks Co: Angelica Park.  Saturday 10:00 am.  Butterfly identification walk at Angelica Park.  Take PA-10 south from Lancaster Avenue 1-1/4 miles. The park entrance road is on the right at the big masonry sign for Alvernia University. Turn right and park at the first parking area on the right. Joint walk with Baird Ornithological Club.  Bad weather will cancel (or reschedule). The public is welcome. Free. CONTACT: Karl Gardner 610-987-3281, Ken Lebo 610-856-1413, or Ryan Woolwine 610-777-2333.

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Toward a lep-social New Year!

Shawn Wainwright did a yeoman’s job of collecting and posting the links to most of the natural-history Facebook pages for the East, updated today on his Facebook timeline.  Here’s his compilation (and with our great thanks, Shawn!)

Butterflies of the eastern United States: http://www.facebook.com/groups/ButterfliesoftheeasternUnitedStates/

Created 9-15-12

As of the 1 year anniversary on 9-15-13 – 447 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 9-15-14 – 3,566 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 9-15-15 – 5,550 members

As of the 4 year anniversary on 9-15-16 – 6,695 members

 

 

Moths of the eastern United States: www.facebook.com/#!/groups/MothsoftheeasternUS/

Created 9-18-12

As of the 1 year anniversary on 9-18-13 – 324 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 9-18-14 – 1,910 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 9-18-15 – 3,059 members

As of the 4 year anniversary 0n 9-18-16 – 3,643 members

 

 

Birds of the eastern United States: www.facebook.com/#!/groups/BirdsoftheeasternUnitedStates/

Created 9-18-12

As of the 1 year anniversary on 9-18-13 – 409 members

As of 6-30-14 – 10,000 members!

As of the 2 year anniversary on 9-18-14 – 11,818 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 9-18-15 – 16,910 members

As of the 4 year anniversary on 9-18-16 – 19,062 members

 

 

Odonata of the eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/OdonataoftheeasternUS/

Created 9-28-12

As of the 1 year anniversary on 9-28-13 – 217 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 9-28-14 – 573 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 9-28-15 – 848 members

As of the 4 year anniversary on 9-28-16 – 1,156 members

 

 

Reptiles and Amphibians of the eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/ReptilesandAmphibiansoftheEasternUS/

Created 9-29-12

As of the 1 year anniversary on 9-29-13 – 261 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 9-29-14 – 1,027 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 9-29-15 – 1,955 members

As of the 4 year anniversary on 9-29-16 – 2,398 members

 

 

Mammals of the eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/MammalsoftheeasternUS/

Created 2-4-13

As of the 1 year anniversary on 2-4-14 – 283 members

As of the 2nd year anniversary on 2-4-15 – 1,067 members

As of the 3rd year anniversary on 2-4-16 – 1,712 members

 

 

Weather of the eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/WeatheroftheeasternUnitedStates/

Created 2-9-13

As of the 1 year anniversary on 2-9-14 – 224 members

As of the 2nd year anniversary on 2-9-15 – 521 members

As of the 3rd year anniversary on 2-9-16 – 692 members

 

 

Flowers of the eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/FloweringPlantsoftheeasternUS/

Created 2-15-13

As of the 1 year anniversary on 2-15-14 – 403 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 2-15-15 – 2,571 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 2-15-16 – 3,725 members

 

 

Zoos and Aquariums of the eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/ZoosandAquariumsoftheeasternUS/

Created 5-28-13

As of the 1 year anniversary on 5-28-14 – 183 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 5-28-15 – 250 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 5-28-16 – 273 members

 

 

Bugs and Slugs of the eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/Bugsandslugsoftheeasternus/

Created 9-7-13

As of the 1 year anniversary on 9-7-14 – 744 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 9-7-15 – 1,309 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 9-7-16 – 1,584 members

 

 

Mushrooms and Fungi of The Eastern United States: https://www.facebook.com/groups/MushroomsandFungioftheeasternUS/

Created 9-15-13

As of the 1 year anniversary on 9-15-14 – 451 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 9-15-15 – 1,106 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 9-15-16 – 1,366 members

 

 

Birding in Ocean County New Jersey:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/BirdingInOceanCountyNewJersey/

Created 12-10-13

As of the 1 year anniversary on 12-10-14 – 764 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 12-10-15 – 1262 members

As of the 3 year anniversary on 12-10-16 – 1586 members

 

 

Butterflies of Ocean County, New Jersey

https://www.facebook.com/groups/ButterfliesofOceanCounty/

Created 4-11-14

As of the 1 year anniversary on 4-11-15 – 120 members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 4-11-16 – 178 members

 

 

Native Flora of the eastern United States:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/NativeFloraoftheeasternUS/

Created 12-19-14

As of the 1 year anniversary on 12-19-15 – 396 Members

As of the 2 year anniversary on 12-19-16 – 1183 Members

 

 

Landscapes of the eastern United States:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/LandscapesOfTheEasternUS/

Created 2-13-15

As of the 1 year anniversary on 2-13-16 – 385 Members

 

 

Butterflies and Moths of the eastern United States

https://www.facebook.com/groups/CaterpillarsEasternUS/

Created 10-9-15

As of the 1 year anniversary on 10-9-16 – 373 Members

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